The U.S. Department of Homeland Security defines 16 industry sectors as "critical infrastructure - Nuclear, Manufacturing, Chemical, Facilities, Defense, Dams, Emergency, Communications, Financial, Energy, Water, Agriculture, Transportation, Health, IT (e.g., data centers), and Government Facilities. Each of these sectors are experiencing the same workforce challenges:
Reaching retirement age and taking a lot of their knowledge and experience with them.
Take up is declining in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) subjects. Engineering and technician roles are often seen as undesirable with limited prospects for career development.
Continuing technology advances make it difficult for the workforce to keep pace with the skills and knowledge that they need.